- AKT 1; AKT; AKT1; AKT1_HUMAN; MGC99656; PKB; PKB-ALPHA; PRKBA; Protein Kinase B Alpha; Protein kinase B; Proto-oncogene c-Akt; RAC Alpha; RAC; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase; RAC-PK-alpha; Akt2; AKT2_HUMAN; HIHGHH; murine thymoma viral (v-akt) homolog-2; PKB; PKB beta; PKBB; PKBBETA; PRKBB; Protein kinase Akt 2; Protein kinase Akt-2; Protein kinase B beta; rac protein kinase beta; RAC-BETA; RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase; RAC-PK-beta; v akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2; Akt3; AKT3 kinase; AKT3_HUMAN; DKFZp434N0250; MPPH; PKB gamma; PKBG; PRKBG; Protein kinase Akt-3; Protein Kinase AKT3; Protein kinase B gamma; RAC gamma; RAC gamma serine/threonine protein kinase; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase; RAC-PK-gamma; RACPK Gamma; Serine threonine protein kinase Akt 3; Serine threonine protein kinase Akt3; STK 2; STK-2; STK2; V akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (protein kinase B, gamma); V akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3; V akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 protein kinase B gamma;
Akt2 an AGC kinase. Plays critical roles in glucose metabolism and the development or maintenance of proper adipose tissue and islet mass for which other Akt/PKB isoforms are unable to fully compensate. Amplified and overexpressed in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines and amplified in some primary ovarian and pancreatic tumors. Antisense blocks invasiveness in xenografts.
AKT 1; AKT; AKT1; AKT1_HUMAN; MGC99656; PKB; PKB-ALPHA; PRKBA; Protein Kinase B Alpha; Protein kinase B; Proto-oncogene c-Akt; RAC Alpha; RAC; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase; RAC-PK-alpha; Akt2; AKT2_HUMAN; HIHGHH; murine thymoma viral (v-akt) homolog-2; PKB; PKB beta; PKBB; PKBBETA; PRKBB; Protein kinase Akt 2; Protein kinase Akt-2; Protein kinase B beta; rac protein kinase beta; RAC-BETA; RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase; RAC-PK-beta; v akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2; Akt3; AKT3 kinase; AKT3_HUMAN; DKFZp434N0250; MPPH; PKB gamma; PKBG; PRKBG; Protein kinase Akt-3; Protein Kinase AKT3; Protein kinase B gamma; RAC gamma; RAC gamma serine/threonine protein kinase; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase; RAC-PK-gamma; RACPK Gamma; Serine threonine protein kinase Akt 3; Serine threonine protein kinase Akt3; STK 2; STK-2; STK2; V akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (protein kinase B, gamma); V akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3; V akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 protein kinase B gamma;
Phospho-Akt (Thr308) Antibody detects endogenous levels of Akt only when phosphorylated at Threonine 308.
WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500, ELISA(peptide) 1:20000-1:40000
A synthesized peptide derived from human Akt around the phosphorylation site of Threonine 308.
The antibody is from purified rabbit serum by affinity purification via sequential chromatography on phospho- and non-phospho-peptide affinity columns.
Store at -20 °C for one year. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.Store at -20 °C.Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.
AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI3P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development. Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3. Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity. Phosphorylation of BAD stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53.
Expressed in prostate cancer and levels increase from the normal to the malignant state (at protein level). Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e. normal to hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages.
O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-305 and Thr-312 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-308 via disrupting the interaction between AKT1 and PDPK1. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-473 also probably interferes with phosphorylation at this site.Phosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity. Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA. This phosphorylated form localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation. Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1. Phosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by IKBKE and TBK1. Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type balloon cells. Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by signaling through activated FLT3. Dephosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by PP2A phosphatase. The phosphorylated form of PPP2R5B is required for bridging AKT1 with PP2A phosphatase. Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by CPPED1, leading to termination of signaling.Ubiquitinated via 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination by ZNRF1, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By similarity). Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT1 ubiquitination is critical for phosphorylation and activation. When ubiquitinated, it translocates to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated. When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome. Also ubiquitinated by TRIM13 leading to its proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylated, undergoes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination preferentially at Lys-284 catalyzed by MUL1, leading to its proteasomal degradation.Acetylated on Lys-14 and Lys-20 by the histone acetyltransferases EP300 and KAT2B. Acetylation results in reduced phosphorylation and inhibition of activity. Deacetylated at Lys-14 and Lys-20 by SIRT1. SIRT1-mediated deacetylation relieves the inhibition.
|Western blot analysis of Akt phosphorylation expression in Insulin treated 293 whole cell lysates,The lane on the left is treated with the antigen-specific peptide.|
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