1-Oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid with various effects. LPA is widely distributed in many tissues. Similar to many other biomediators, LPA interacts with cells via specific cell surface receptors, such as G proteincoupled receptors, to induce biological effects.
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LPA could mediate signal transduction via Edg/LPA receptor, inducing the proliferation, migration, adhesion and antiapoptotic function of tumor cells. Additionally, LPA was found to elicit upregulation of VEGF, leading to an indirect influence on initiation and progression of malignancies. LPA could also stimulate matrix metalloproteinase secretion and tumor angiogenesis factor .
LPA was tested for its vascular remodeling effect in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Serum from animals in the hypoxic group showed higher chemoattractant properties toward rat primary lung fibroblasts, and such cell migration increase was prevented by the LPA receptor 1 and 3 antagonists. LPA also found to increase adhesive properties of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells, via the activation of LPA receptor 1 or 3.
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